• CUSD #4 RtI Intervention

    PARKVIEW (2-4)

    Response to Intervention (RtI) is an approach for redesigning and establishing teaching and learning environments that are effective, efficient, relevant, and durable for all students, families, and educators. RtI is a general education initiative.  

    RtI is also a process designed to help schools focus on and provide high-quality instruction and interventions to students who may be struggling with learning.

    An intervention is a specific type of instruction that is used to help with a specific type of problem. Interventions are matched to student needs.

    Student progress is monitored often to check the effectiveness of the instruction and interventions. The data collected on a student’s progress are used to shape instruction and make educational decisions.

    Use of an RtI process can help avoid a “wait to fail” situation because students get help promptly within the general education environment.

    RtI has three important parts: 1) A multi-tiered model of school supports, 2) Using a problem solving method for decision-making at each tier, and 3) Using data to inform instruction at each tier.

    Part 1: Three-Tier Model of School Supports:

    In an RtI framework, resources are allocated in accordance with students' needs. This framework is usually shown as a multi-tiered model that involves more and more intense instruction and interventions across the tiers. The level of intensity of instruction and interventions a student receives is determined by how he or she responds to the instruction and/or intervention.  Various assessments determine the tier service each student receives.  

    Tier 1:

    Tier 1 refers to classroom instruction for all students that utilizes the district’s curriculum. It is designed to address the needs of the majority of the school’s students. By using whole- and small-group instruction, on-going assessment and targeting specific skills, classroom teachers are able to meet instructional goals.

    Tier 2:

    Tier 2 interventions are provided with an increase level of intensity PLUS these possible interventions:


    • Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Instruction (LLI)
    • Wilson Reading System - phonics/word work
    • Small group instruction with RTI Literacy Specialist and/or RTI Teacher focusing on needs determined through qualitative, diagnostic assessments
    • Differentiated Lessons through reading series, Early Connections, Sun Sprouts, Reading A-Z, and National Geographic Theme Series
    • Reading Mastery
    • Corrective Reading


    • RTI teacher pushing into classroom during math instruction to support classroom instruction.
    • Xtra Math
    • Small group instruction targeting basic skills and classroom concepts.

    Tier 3:

    Tier 3 interventions provide an even higher level of intensity from Tier 2 PLUS these possible interventions:


    • Wilson Reading System - phonics/word work
    • Intense instruction with RTI Literacy Specialist and/or Reading Teacher (1-on-1 or a group of 2) focusing on targeted needs determined through qualitative, diagnostic assessments


    • Intense instruction with RTI teacher (1-on-1 or a group of 2) focusing on targeted needs determined through diagnostic assessments

    Interventions are tailored specifically to meet the needs of each student. Students may move fluidly from tier to tier as a result of their response to their interventions.

    Part 2: The Problem Solving Method of Decision-Making

    In RtI, the problem solving method is used to match instructional resources to educational need. The problem solving method is used at all three tiers: for all students (Tier 1), for groups of students (Tier 2), and for individual or small groups of students (Tier 3). Problem solving typically consists of four steps, as shown in Figure 2 and discussed below it.

    Columbia School District’s problem solving team is called, SOAR (Staff Offering Assistance and Remediation). This team uses the following problem solving method as follows:

    Define the problem: Determine the gap or difference between what student is expected to do and what the student is actually doing.  

    Analyze the problem: Use information collected from a variety of sources, such as universal screening, progress monitoring, student work, parents’ input, etc., to determine why the learning and/or behavior problem(s) may be occurring.

    Develop and implement a plan:

    • Set a goal that describes the expected improvement in learning  
    • Select the instruction and/or intervention(s) that will address the problem  
    • Identify how progress will be monitored
    • Carry out the instructional changes and/or interventions and check to make sure they are being done correctly (with fidelity).

    Monitor Progress: Collect and use student data to determine if the intervention plan is working or if changes are needed.

    Part 3: Using Data to Inform Instruction

    Columbia School District uses a universal screening process which includes multiple data sources to identify students who are at risk for learning problems with the core instruction.

    To begin the identification process, benchmark data for each student is collected by using a universal screening tool called AIMSweb.  Classroom teachers use the universal screening tool results to assist them in identifying those students who score below level on the various reading and math AIMSweb probes and who may need general classroom interventions for classroom success.   The AIMSweb benchmark results are solely used as an at-risk measure to guide the teachers and problem solving team for data driven decision making.

    If the general classroom interventions (Tier 1) are not effective for the student, the teacher will refer the student to the SOAR team.  After considering a variety of measures and indicators, the SOAR team will determine a student’s eligibility for for RtI services (Tier 2).

    AIMSweb probes:

    • Reading Curriculum Based Measure (R-CBM) is given three times a year to all students (Fall, Winter, and Spring).
    • MAZE is given twice a year to all students (Fall and Spring) and three times a year (Fall, Winter, and Spring) to students who participate in Tier 2 and Tier 3 reading.
    • Math Concepts and Applications (MCAP) and Math Computations (MCOMP) are given twice a year (Fall and Spring) to all students and three times a year (Fall, Winter, and Spring) to students who participate in Tier 2 and Tier 3 math.

    The MAZE, MCAP, and MCOMP are also administered a third time to any Tier 1 student that the general education classroom teacher feel need additional assessments.

    Once students are identified by the SOAR team as needing Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions, AIMSweb is used for progress monitoring in reading and math throughout the school year.

    Running Records:

    Qualitative Reading Inventory - 5 (QRI-5) and/or Fountas and Pinnell running records are administered two times a year to all students (Fall and Spring), and at least four times a year to students that participate in Tier 2 and Tier 3.  Running records may be performed more frequently throughout the year to monitor reading progress and determine reading level.

    PARCC Testing (State Testing):

    Given once a year to determine levels of achievement in Reading, Math, and Science


    A very concerted effort is made to work collaboratively with the parents of our RTI students. Parents are notified and provided data if their child qualifies for Tier II or Tier III instruction. Notification letters are sent to parent(s) prior to receiving RTI services. This process is to ensure that parents are adequately informed about our RTI program and the intended purpose of the program. In addition, parents receive notice of any adjustments of the intensity of instruction for their child.  Progress monitoring charts and current reading levels are shared with parents at parent/teacher conferences.  Family meetings are held twice a year.  During the first meeting in fall, the RTI program is described in depth to parents with helpful ideas and strategies to use with their struggling readers. During the Spring meeting, ideas to encourage summer learning are provided.  The families share an evening of hands-on activities and make-it/take-it activities focusing on reading, writing, and math.  Additionally, a representative from the public library gives a presentation explaining their summer reading program and to promote use of the public library.


    Please contact the following for further questions:

    Dr. Brad Landgraf, Principal

    Mrs. Janet Kniepkamp, Reading, RtI/Reading Specialist